A political ideology that aims to minimize the role of government in the lives of citizens and in the market. Libertarians generally believe in the minimisation of public goods and instead replace them with free-market driven solutions. Libertarianism is often correlated with ideas of tax minimization or avoidance which are viewed as form of "plunder" by the state.

Libertarians generally believe in a minimal nation state whose role exists to provide for public defense, the rule of law, and to enforce civil contract law.

See also technosolutionism, cryptoanarchism and post-state technocracy.


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  6. Inwood, Olivia, and Michele Zappavigna. 2021. ‘Ideology, Attitudinal Positioning, and the Blockchain: A Social Semiotic Approach to Understanding the Values Construed in the Whitepapers of Blockchain Start-Ups’. Social Semiotics, 1–19.
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  8. Binder, Carola. 2021. ‘Technopopulism and Central Banks’. SSRN Electronic Journal.
  9. Hellegren, Z. Isadora. 2017. ‘A History of Crypto-Discourse: Encryption as a Site of Struggles to Define Internet Freedom’. Internet Histories 1 (4): 285–311.