Productive Asset

Productive assets are assets which have income-cashflows attached to them. Examples include stocks, real estate, and bonds.

Commodities are non-productive assets.

Art is a non-productive asset.

Crypto tokens are non-productive assets.


  1. Grinold, Richard C., and Ronald N. Kahn. Active portfolio management: Quantitative theory and applications. Probus, 1995.
  2. Hanley, Brian P. 2018. ‘The False Premises and Promises of Bitcoin’. ArXiv:1312.2048 [Cs, q-Fin], July.
  3. Wilmott, Paul. Paul Wilmott introduces quantitative finance. John Wiley & Sons, 2007.
  4. Taleb, Nassim Nicholas. 2021. ‘Bitcoin, Currencies, and Fragility’. ArXiv:2106.14204 [Physics, q-Fin], July.
  5. ‘Why Bitcoin Is Worse than a Madoff-Style Ponzi Scheme | Financial Times’. n.d. Accessed 20 March 2022.