A form of crime involving hijacking of computer systems by which to demand ransoms to be paid to the attacker in the form of crypto asset.


  1. Al-rimy, Bander Ali Saleh, Mohd Aizaini Maarof, and Syed Zainudeen Mohd Shaid. 2018. ‘Ransomware Threat Success Factors, Taxonomy, and Countermeasures: A Survey and Research Directions’. Computers & Security 74: 144–66.
  2. Popper, Nathaniel. 2020. ‘Ransomware Attacks Grow, Crippling Cities and Businesses’. New York Times, February.
  3. Mehrotra, Kartikay. 2020. ‘UCSF Hack Shows Evolving Risks of Ransomware in the Covid Era’. Bloomberg.Com. Bloomberg. https://www.bloomberg.com/news/features/2020-08-19/ucsf-hack-shows-evolving-risks-of-ransomware-in-the-covid-era.
  4. Diehl, Stephen. 2021. ‘The Oncoming Ransomware Storm’. 11 May 2021. https://www.stephendiehl.com/blog/ransomware.html.