Zero Sum Game

An economic game which involves two sides and where the result is an advantage for one side and a loss for the other. The sum of all gains and losses across all players sums to zero.

Investing in crypto tokens is necessarily a zero sum game before considering the cost of transactions and network maintenance.

Negative Sum Games

An economic game where all gains and losses across all players sums to a negative quantity.


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  2. Taleb, Nassim Nicholas. 2021. ‘Bitcoin, Currencies, and Fragility’. ArXiv:2106.14204 [Physics, q-Fin], July.
  3. Stivers, A. 2019. ‘The Alchemy of a Pyramid: Transmutating Business Opportunity Into a Negative Sum Wealth Transfer’.
  4. Stolfi, Jorge. n.d. ‘Bitcoin Is a Ponzi’. Accessed 19 March 2022.
  5. ‘Why Bitcoin Is Worse than a Madoff-Style Ponzi Scheme’. n.d. Accessed 20 March 2022.
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