Market Manipulation

Manipulation of price formation and the natural operation of a market. Can be performed by both market makers and cartels.

Front Running

Using inside information about future orders to preempt market movements and extract from other market participants.

See front-running

Insider Trading

See asymmetric-information.

Wash Trading

See wash-trading.

Pump and Dumps

See pump and dump.

Order Tampering

Altering of order book to privilege the market maker or a cartel of insiders.


Discretionary halting of the market in order to prevent price movement the market maker does not wish to occur.

Redemption Manipulation

Discretionary restriction of the sale of assets for currency.


  1. Ostroff, Patricia Kowsmann and Caitlin. 2021. ‘Binance Froze When Bitcoin Crashed. Now Users Want Their Money Back.’ Wall Street Journal, 11 July 2021, sec. Markets.
  2. Lefevre, Edwin. 2004. Reminiscences of a Stock Operator. Vol. 175. John Wiley & Sons.
  3. Dhawan, Anirudh, and Talis J. Putnins. 2020. ‘A New Wolf in Town? Pump-and-Dump Manipulation in Cryptocurrency Markets’. SSRN Electronic Journal.
  4. Hamrick, JT, Farhang Rouhi, Arghya Mukherjee, Amir Feder, Neil Gandal, Tyler Moore, and Marie Vasek. 2018a. ‘An Examination of the Cryptocurrency Pump and Dump Ecosystem’.
  5. ———. 2018b. ‘The Economics of Cryptocurrency Pump and Dump Schemes’.
  6. Kamps, Josh, and Bennett Kleinberg. 2018. ‘To the Moon: Defining and Detecting Cryptocurrency Pump-and-Dumps’. Crime Science 7 (1): 18.
  7. Lefevre, Edwin. 2004. Reminiscences of a Stock Operator. Vol. 175. John Wiley & Sons.
  8. Li, Tao, Donghwa Shin, and Baolian Wang. 2019. ‘Cryptocurrency Pump-and-Dump Schemes’. Available at SSRN 3267041.
  9. Xu, Jiahua, and Benjamin Livshits. 2019. ‘The Anatomy of a Cryptocurrency Pump-and-Dump Scheme’. In 28th USENIX Security Symposium, 1609–25.