Money Laundering

The obfuscation of the origin of funds by layering illegitimate transactions (often tied to criminal activities) with legitimate transactions.

See mixer and AML.


  1. Orcutt, Mike. 2020. ‘This Is How North Korea Uses Cutting-Edge Crypto Money Laundering to Steal Millions’. MIT Technology Review. MIT Technology Review.
  2. Buttigieg, Christopher P., Christos Efthymiopoulos, Abigail Attard, and Samantha Cuyle. 2019. ‘Anti-Money Laundering Regulation of Crypto Assets in Europe’s Smallest Member State’. Law and Financial Markets Review 13 (4): 211–27.
  3. Fanusie, Yaya, and Tom Robinson. 2018. ‘Bitcoin Laundering: An Analysis of Illicit Flows into Digital Currency Services’. Center on Sanctions and Illicit Finance Memorandum, January.
  4. Feinstein, Brian D., and Kevin Werbach. 2020. ‘The Impact of Cryptocurrency Regulation on Trading Markets’. SSRN Electronic Journal 7 (1): 48–99.
  5. Ferreira, Agata. 2021. ‘The Curious Case of Stablecoins—Balancing Risks and Rewards?’ Journal of International Economic Law 24 (4): 755–78.
  6. Fletcher, Emily, Charles Larkin, and Shaen Corbet. 2021. ‘Countering Money Laundering and Terrorist Financing: A Case for Bitcoin Regulation’. Research in International Business and Finance 56 (January): 101387.
  7. Miscione, Gianluca, and Donncha Kavanagh. 2015. ‘Bitcoin and the Blockchain: A Coup d’Etat in Digital Heterotopia?’ SSRN Electronic Journal, no. 2006: 1–27.
  8. Rae, Shaela W, and Lorraine Mastersmith. 2019. ‘Crypto Asset Trading in Canada: Entering a New Era of Regulation’. Banking & Finance Law Review 35 (1): 153–85.
  9. Renwick, Robin, and Rob Gleasure. 2021. ‘Those Who Control the Code Control the Rules: How Different Perspectives of Privacy Are Being Written into the Code of Blockchain Systems’. Journal of Information Technology 36 (1): 16–38.